A warden meets with the 23 prisoners when they arrive at the prison.
He tells them:
You may meet together today and plan a strategy, but after today you will be in isolated cells and have no communication with one another.
There is in this prison a "switch room" which contains two light switches, labelled "A" and "B", each of which can be in the "on" or "off" position. I am not telling you their present positions. The switches are not connected to any appliance. After today, from time to time, whenever I feel so inclined, I will select one prisoner at random and escort him to the "switch room". This prisoner must select one of the two switches and reverse its position (e.g. if it was "on", he will turn it "off"). The prisoner will then be led back to his cell. Apart from these prisoner visits no one will ever enter the "switch room".
At any time, any one of you may declare to me, "We have all visited the switch room." If it is true (ie. each of the 23 prisoners has visited the switch room at least once), then you will all be set free. If it is false (someone has not yet visited the switch room), you will all remain here forever, with no chance of parole.
Devise a strategy which will guarantee the prisoners' release.
All the prisoners get together and nominate a "leader". The leader is going to count how many different prisoners have visited the switch room. When the count equals the number of prisoners, he goes to the warden and says "all the prisoners have visited", and everyone goes free. Here's the strategy for the leader and the followers:
Visit by a follower:
Visit by the leader:
Each follower must remember two things, 1) whether they've seen switch A on during any previous visit, and 2) whether they've previously toggled switch A. They must have seen switch A on before toggling it on themselves, and they will only toggle it on once.
The leader must remember two things also, 1) whether he toggled switch A on during his previous visit, and 2) the current count of followers who have toggled switch A.
Solution submitted by reader who found it here www.w-uh.com/posts/030530-the_two_switches.html